Vol. 21 - 3
Leader gender stereotypes and transformational leadership: Does leader sex make the difference?
Sarah E Saint-Michel.
Pages : 944-966
This research aims to understand how leaders’ self-perception of their gender role identity, described as agentic or communal, influences their followers’ perception of transformational leadership. Agentic attributes are stereotypically masculine while communal attributes are stereotypically feminine. Drawing on role congruity theory (Eagly & Karau, 2002) and leadership prototype theory (Lord & Maher, 1993), we propose a theoretical model to investigate the influence of leader sex and stereotypical gendered perception of leaders on perceptions of transformational leadership among their followers. Using a sample of 260 employees and their 65 immediate supervisors from French organizations, the results of multilevel structural equation modeling suggest that female leaders who self-describe as highly communal are perceived by followers as more transformational than male leaders. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results reveal an unexpected positive relationship between women’s agentic attributes and follower perceptions of transformational leadership. Our findings develop role congruity theory by demonstrating the influence of gendered stereotypes not only for female but also male leaders. | Download PDF (EN)
Organizational Behavior - Quantitative Methods
An instrumental and relational explanation of witness reactions to interactional injustice in the workplace: The case of inter-peer derogation
Franck Biétry, Jordane Creusier.
Pages : 967-993
Research on organizational injustice has recently begun to endeavor to understand the conditions in which a witness who is not directly affected by such a situation can be encouraged to react. This article contributes to this emerging and mainly theoretical literature by empirically testing the influence of three witness characteristics: one instrumental (just world belief), one moral (cynical hostility) and one relational (personal experience of injustice). Using a synthesis of the three theoretical explanations currently available and an experiment involving 223 employees and how they attribute responsibility for an act of denigration in the workplace, we reveal the intra-psychic and inter-group conditions in which the predisposition of the witness to offer help to the person responsible for the act, if needed, is weak. The findings alert managers to the dangers for the smooth running of the organization of allowing a climate of denigration to develop. They also develop current theoretical knowledge of witnesses’ attitudinal reactions to interactional injustice in the workplace. | Download PDF (EN) | Télécharger PDF (FR)
Organizational Behavior - Quantitative Methods
Career stability despite mobility norms: Work identification as a source of both dependence and free will
Sébastien Mainhagu, François Grima, Renaud Defiebre-Muller.
Pages : 994-1031
Remaining in the same job or with the same employer for a long time, or even an entire career, is not viewed favorably in the dominant managerial discourse. Yet this is the reality for many employees in Europe. What are the mechanisms used by employees to assume this stability in the face of career norms that favor mobility? What is new in this research, with regard to the existing literature, is that it explains the career stability of employees in terms of identification mechanisms, in particular identification with the content of their work. Several results were obtained using the coding method to process the data collected in an association operating in the social sector. We began by distinguishing between four modalities of work content identification: normative, cognitive, emotive and performative. We went on to highlight two effects of work identification: the free will of agents, made possible by the argumentative resources they provide, and dependence on their work through the integration of structural constraints. Three types of arguments (factual, existential and normative) are identified which enable employees to adopt unique positions in relation to their career in the face of today’s mobility norms: distantiation, conciliation and conformity. The process-based model proposed contributes to a dialectical reading of careers—between structural and agentic effects—emphasizing the social mechanisms used by employees to “cope” with pressure to embrace career mobility. | Download PDF (EN) | Télécharger PDF (FR)
Organizational Behavior - Qualitative Methods
The Ironic Double Whammy of Being an Ethical Leader: Follower Response to Leader Infidelity
Steven L Grover, Markus C Hasel.
Pages : 1032-1049
This study examines how leaders’ ethical behavior outside of work affects followers’ attitudes toward them. Building on leader integrity and apology research, we conducted a scenario-based study that experimentally manipulated leader reputation (ethical/unethical), type of sex scandal (involving abuse of power or not) and the leader’s response (denial, apology or atonement). The results support and extend recent work on apologies, suggesting that ethical leaders suffer more than unethical leaders from extra-role sex scandals, and that meaningful apologies are effective for personal responsibility but not for violations involving an official abuse of power. | Download PDF (EN)
Organizational Behavior - Quantitative Methods
The Continuum Conception of Exploration and Exploitation: An Update to March’s Theory
Sasanka Sekhar Chanda, Sougata Ray, Bill McKelvey.
Pages : 1050-1079
In his seminal 1991 publication, March illustrates the continuum conception of exploration and exploitation by an organizational learning metaphor. Exploration involves allocating resources to experimentation. Exploitation involves doing known things better and focusing on execution. In March’s formal model, members of an organization deploy their collective human capital and engage in learning activities to fashion organizational knowledge. Collective human capital (CHC) is constituted by the aggregate beliefs of members, some of which are correctly aligned with respect to an objective external reality while others are neutral or misaligned. Organizational knowledge—constituting the validated knowledge in an organization—resides in the databases, rules, forms, norms, operating procedures and other artifacts in an organization. March’s computational experiments pertaining to the continuum conception suggest that more exploration is always preferable over more exploitation. We demonstrate that the reverse holds true when the CHC available in an organization is somewhat lower than that assumed in March’s experiments. Our research indicates that a section of extant research is mistaken in assuming that March’s formal model for the continuum conception suggests an inverted U-shaped relation between the extent of exploration and organizational outcome. Instead, the level of CHC determines whether it is rewarding to focus on exploration or exploitation. Thus, the formal model supports managerial intentionality towards exploratory and exploitative innovation through appropriate choice of the level of CHC. We call for a new “balance” discussion, focusing on the determinants of the minimum level of the non-preferred activity from among exploration and exploitation. | Download PDF (EN)
Quantitative Methods - Strategy & Business Policy
In 1000 words: #TimeIsUp, Academics and Organization Studies
Nancy Aumais, Joëlle Basque, Nasima MH Carrim, Maria Daskalaki, Léa Dorion, Julie Garneau, Emma Jeanes, Monika Kostera, Helena Liu, Bernadette Loacker, Sara Louise Muhr, Saoirse Caitlin O\'Shea, Mie Plotnikof, Steffi Siegert, Martyna Śliwa, Florence Villesèche, Dimitra Vladimirou.
Pages : 1080-1117
M@n@gement offers here a mosaic of short and reflexive essays dedicated to the topic: #TimeIsUp, Academics and Organization Studies. Papers may engage in a poetic, controversial, academic, auto-ethnographical, or fictional style but all share strong ideas around the question of academia, gender and organizing. | Download PDF (EN)
The (academic) society of the spectacle (of publication)
Yoann Bazin, Gazi Islam, Martin Parker, Yiannis Gabriel.
Pages : 1118-1134
Data we collect and use in organization and management studies look like “cold cases”. We want to offer more conversations, interpretations, arguments, even disputes. The Interpreters is a nexus where academics invite colleagues and friends to analyze and discuss freely an argument, raw data, cases, qualitative materials.
| Download PDF (EN)
“Hope is the greatest whore”: Hope, critique, and management studies in Irena Haiduk’s artwork
Nada Endrissat, Ana Alacovska.
Pages : 1135-1153
Research in management and organization may only gain by being inspired from arts, culture and humanities in order to rethink practices but also to nourish its own perspectives. Life in organizations is artificially separate from ordinary life: all of mundane objects are thus conducive to astonishment, inspiration, and even problematization. The unplugged subsection “voices” gives the opportunity to academics and non-academics to deliver an interpretation about an object from the cultural or artistic world. Interpreted objects are or not directly related to organizational life, resonate or not with the moment, but share some intriguing features. These interpretations suggest a patchwork of variations on the same object. | Download PDF (EN)
Beats Per Minute (2017)
Léa Dorion, Fabien Hildwein, Elen Riot.
Pages : 1154-1177
Research in management and organization may only gain by
being inspired from arts, culture and humanities in order to rethink practices but also to nourish its own perspectives. Life in organizations is artificially separate from ordinary life: all of mundane objects are thus conducive to astonishment, inspiration, and even problematization. The unplugged subsection “voices” gives the opportunity to academics and non-academics to deliver an interpretation about an object from the cultural or artistic world. Interpreted objects are or not directly related to organizational life, resonate or not with the moment, but share some intriguing features. These interpretations suggest a patchwork of variations on the same object. | Download PDF (EN)