M@n@gement 2020-10-01T00:01:35-07:00 The M@n@gement Editorial Team Open Journal Systems <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>M@n@gement is supported by the AIMS (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Association Internationale de Management Stratégique</a><a href="">ion</a>).&nbsp;The AIMS is the largest French speaking association of scholars in the fields of management, strategy and organization research.&nbsp;It's mission consists in promoting research works in the fields of strategic and organizational management, in easy their difusion and in helping the professional development of its members.</p> <p>In addition, our journal is supported by Institut des Sciences Humaines et Sociales (CNRS - The French National Science Foundation) since 2018.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/ecsemiczky/aims-logo3.jpg"></a></p> Rethinking Observation: Challenges and Practices 2020-09-30T11:52:53-07:00 Thibaut Bardon Lionel Garreau Chahrazad Abdallah Benoît Journé Maja Korica 2020-09-30T02:48:10-07:00 Copyright (c) Observing Materiality in Organizations 2020-09-30T11:57:50-07:00 Isabelle Royer <p>Research on materiality has grown rapidly over the past 10 years, highlighting the influence of physical artifacts and spaces in organizations, which had been overshadowed by discursive approaches. This body of research enriches our understanding of organizations in many areas including technology, decision-making, routines, learning, identity, culture, power, and institutions. However, researchers sometimes struggle to select methods suited to study materiality, as previous works have not been explicit in that respect. This article calls organizational researchers interested in physical environments – that is, artifacts and spaces – to integrate observation into their data collection. The first section presents a tripartite definition of the physical environment including activities, conceptions, and lived experiences. Ontological debates are introduced, and observation is proposed as a relevant method for studying materiality in organizational research. The second section presents observation techniques based on three approaches:&nbsp;<em>observing materiality in actions</em>,&nbsp;<em>observing beyond seeing</em>, and&nbsp;<em>making participants observe</em>. Each approach is mainly associated with one of the three components of materiality. The final section discusses the scope of observation techniques, suggests how to combine approaches, and flags difficulties associated with visual techniques.</p> 2020-09-30T02:49:11-07:00 Copyright (c) Enhancing In Situ Observation with the SCI Design (Shadowing–Conversations–Interview to the Double) to Capture the Cognitive Underpinnings of Action 2020-09-30T11:52:56-07:00 Christelle Théron <p><em>In situ</em>&nbsp;observation methods have essentially been mobilized to study actors’ doings, but they have also been mobilized (through studies in the stream of situated action) to study cognition in these same organizational actors. The existing methodological designs have helped to enhance our knowledge of certain cognitive underpinnings, but they carry two limits: (1) they are deployed following a stacking logic, that is, by triangulation, which is more about compensating for the weaknesses of the component methods than uniting their strengths, and which has the pitfall of capturing cognition and action separately; and (2) they cannot capture all the situated and structuring facets of the cognitive underpinnings of action. Here we propose to overcome these barriers with the SCI design: S for shadowing, C for conversions, and I for an interview borrowing on the ‘interview to the double’ technique. This design is built in a synergy-guided effort that hinges on tightly meshing these three techniques together at fieldwork deployment. This articulation makes it possible to capture action and cognition together and to surface both the situated and structuring facets of cognition underpinning action. The SCI design is easy enough to deploy in fieldwork across a whole range of research settings.</p> 2020-09-30T02:50:36-07:00 Copyright (c) Multi-Shadowing: A Gateway to Organizing? The Case of Hunting with Hounds 2020-09-30T11:52:57-07:00 Nathalie Raulet-Croset Rachel Beaujolin Thierry Boudes <p>Organizations can be approached both as entities and as constantly evolving phenomena. The former are associated with the term ‘organization,’ while the latter are specifically associated with ‘organizing.’ In the second meaning, organizations, such as constantly evolving flows, can make observation problematic. Three of these problems deserve special attention. Many events take place at the same time, which poses a challenge for observation. Then there is a question of what to observe, especially for the researcher outside the organization. And finally, the coordination between the actors is not always directly observable. This paper shows how observation by means of multiple- researcher shadowing (Czarniawska, 2007) or ‘multi-shadowing’ makes it possible for the observer to tackle these three difficulties. For the observer, shadowing (McDonald, 2005; Mintzberg, 1970) involves physically following the actors of the organization as part of a weak or even nonparticipating observational approach. ‘Multi-shadowing’ combines simultaneous instances of shadowing different actors in the same unit of time but not of place. We compare shadowing and multi-shadowing with other approaches of solo and multiple-researcher observation. Then, we show the interest and the limits of using multi-shadowing to observe hunting with hounds, which involves activities that, while traditional, borrow a number of characteristics from modern organizations if considered through the prism of organizing.</p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Observing to Coproduce a Collective Narrative: Emplotment of Multiple Parallel Stories 2020-09-30T11:52:58-07:00 Justine Arnoud Hélène Peton <p>Observation captures complex organizational phenomena&nbsp;<em>in situ</em>. The literature on this method explains the possible data collection methods but says less about the use and organization of the data collected. As a result, the question of the meaning of observation data remains open. This article explores that question with the focus on a specific form of observation, dynamic observation, which can grasp indeterminate situations whose meaning is elusive for both practitioners and the researcher. Drawing on the work of Ricœur, we propose a conceptual tool kit founded on&nbsp;<em>mimesis.</em>&nbsp;We show that organizing observation data into a plot and narrative, through an inquiry conducted by researchers and practitioners together, can shed light both on the observation data and the situation observed. We embody our method by applying this tool kit to a dynamic observation conducted in a high-risk industry. We discuss the methodological issues of this co-construction of shared meaning and its role in restoring centrality to observation in the management sciences, and resituating the situations and the actors as core concerns.</p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) Observation as photography: A metaphor 2020-09-30T12:14:24-07:00 Hervé Laroche <p>From its invention in the middle of the 19th century to the present date, photography has generally been considered as a highly reliable means for capturing data about a wide range of objects and for a huge variety of purposes. Though debated, photography’s relationship with reality is specific and powerful. Because of its long and rich history, photography has encountered many problems and challenges observation methods and practices in management studies. Taking photography as a metaphor for observation in general, this article explores the successive steps of a research project relying on observation. Taking photographs is capturing data; reading photographs is analyzing and interpreting data; and showing photographs is presenting the findings in publications. For each stage of the process, various issues are discussed, drawing on the scientific, forensic, artistic, or vernacular uses of photography. Particular attention is accorded to key examples in the history of photography. This article is an invitation to reflect on observational methods and practices in a non-demonstrative, heuristic manner.</p> 2020-09-30T02:52:09-07:00 Copyright (c) Ethnography 2020-10-01T00:01:35-07:00 Multiple Authors <p>Collective contributions of (in order of appearance): David Courpasson, Eleunthia Wong Ellinger, Yousra Rahmouni Elidrissi, Nesrine Bouguerra, Roscoe Conan D’Souza, David Sanson, Claire Le Breton, Clara Roussey</p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c)