Vol. 22 - 3
Re-thinking gender inequality in the workplace – a framework from the male perspective
Elena Essig, Richard Soparnot.
Pages : 373-410
Gender inequality is one of the most extensively investigated subjects across different disciplines and plays an important role in public and government policy debates. Because, historically, women have been fighting for their rights in society, gender inequality issues have been studied predominately from their point of view. There are a few studies that investigate gender inequality from the male perspective, but little empirical research has examined the male issues in the professional world. Furthermore, the literature on male difficulties is dispersed and lacks an integrative conceptual framework as it has been studied in different fields such as sociology, psychology and management studies. In this article, we propose an additional and complementary perspective, which observes the difficulties that the male working population can experience in the workplace. Based on a literature review, we present a first-level typology of male struggles in the professional world. We use it for the analysis of 33 semi-structured interviews conducted with male subjects who were perceiving or experiencing gender-related difficulties in the workplace. Finally, as a result of our empirical data, we revisit the typology and propose a final framework of existing male difficulties as well as new ones that are based on two dimensions: the nature of the occupation (traditionally female, male and gender-neutral) and the potential sources of difficulties (social circles, colleagues, superiors, clients). This study advocates for more awareness of existing gender inequality to help fight occupational segregation and promote flexible working arrangements for all genders.
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CSR & Business Ethics - Organizational Behavior
Complex networks of stakeholders and corporate political strategy
Pages : 411-437
This article makes a theoretical contribution by applying two concepts from complex network theory to stakeholder management and corporate political strategy: systemic shocks and small-world networks. Shocks may be random or intentionally caused by a firm. The nature of a shock determines the urgency of the situation faced by a firm and the legitimacy of managerial decisions. A small-world network is a set of dense clusters loosely connected with one another. This study characterizes the structure of the stakeholders’ network in which the firm is embedded. A firm may be highly or loosely embedded in a given cluster. Embeddedness relates both to the firm’s resource dependence and its quest for legitimacy. Combining the nature of the shock and the degree of embeddedness offers a conceptual framework to explore corporate political strategy aimed at managing stakeholders. When a firm that is loosely embedded in a cluster of stakeholders faces a random shock, it chooses a reactive corporate political strategy. A firm that is highly embedded in a cluster and facing a random shock favours an accommodative corporate political strategy. A firm loosely embedded in a cluster in which it intentionally causes a shock chooses a proactive corporate political strategy. A firm highly embedded in a cluster in which it intentionally provokes a shock adopts a defensive corporate political strategy. Four examples of industrial downsizing understood as systemic shocks illustrate this conceptual framework.
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CSR & Business Ethics - Strategy & Business Policy - Theory Development
Strategy emergence as wayfinding
Isabelle Bouty, Marie-Léandre Gomez, Robert Chia.
Pages : 438-465
Strategy researchers increasingly recognize that in many organizations strategic coherence can emerge inadvertently from local coping actions and decisions taken “on the hoof”. However, how this actually happens in practice has not been sufficiently examined and explained. We draw from the “practice turn” in social theory to show how strategy can emerge through a process of wayfinding involving local adaptive actions taken guided by an internalized habitus or modus operandi. Small iterative changes made oftentimes at operational levels can generate positive unintended consequences that ultimately contribute towards the emergence of a coherent and viable strategy. We empirically investigate the case of a high-end gourmet restaurant in the extremely structured field of haute cuisine, examining everyday practices, actions and ongoing improvisations made in relation to the individuals concerned, their professionally socialized selves, the unique set of organizational circumstances they face, and the institutional and environmental demands placed on them. We show how strategy as a consistent pattern of actions can emerge from this synergistic interweaving of local coping actions and their unintended consequences. We thus contribute to strategy research by proposing a model of strategy emergence as wayfinding that considers the actors’ social embeddedness, their internalized habitus and how that predisposes them to respond by itinerantly interweaving seemingly small coping actions to unexpectedly produce a coherent strategy.
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Strategy & Business Policy
The Irony of Choice in Recruitment: When Similarity Turns Recruiters to Other Candidates
Adrián Barragán Díaz, Jimena Y. Ramírez Marín, Francisco J. Medina Díaz.
Pages : 466-486
Across two experimental studies, we examine the influence of similarity perceptions on recruiters’ job fit perceptions of job applicants. In addition, a robustness study extends the effect of similarity by introducing work-related sources of similarity and tests the relationship between work-related similarities on similarity perceptions. Moreover, we explore the emotional and cognitive mechanisms behind the effects of similarity perceptions on job fit. We also propose and test a boundary condition, such that, when job desirability is low, the effect of demographic similarity on perceived similarity is reversed. The sample for the three studies consist of specialized master’s students with work experience in human resources management who acted as recruiters in a resume screening situation. The results show that the effects of similarity are not always positive for job fit perceptions. The studies provide evidence that when recruiters perceive applicants as similar to themselves, biased evaluations occur. Finally, we provide results that show the effects of mediation and moderation analysis whereby liking mediates the relationship between similarity perceptions and job fit perceptions through emotional, cognitive and motivational sequential mediators. Additionally, job desirability moderates the relationship between demographic similarity and similarity perceptions so that when job desirability is low, the effect of demographic similarity on perceived similarity is reversed.
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Fuck, fuck, fuck: Reflexivity and fidelity in reporting swearwords in management research
Bryant Ashley Hudson.
Pages : 487-495
In this essay, I confront a problem I encountered at a recent academic conference wherein the words and sentiments of research respondents were unfortunately and unnecessarily silenced and edited – perhaps due to presenters’ unfortunate and needless regard for the supposed impropriety of the respondents’ language. I argue that such silencing and editing is not only unfaithful to our respondents; it is also unfaithful to our project as social scientists. I briefly review some of the literature on qualitative interviewing and the importance of positionality, relationality and reflexivity between the interviewer and the participant. I apply some of these prescriptions to the reporting of data in presentations and manuscripts. I then point out some examples of how rude or swearwords have been appropriately used in management and other journals and end with a plea that we remain true to the language and settings that are so important for our understanding of social and organizational life.
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Acting Up with Hardt and Negri: Capitalism in the Biopolitical Context
Pages : 496-506
Since the early 2000s, we have been witnessing the interpolation of the notion of biopolitics into the domain of radical thought. In this endeavour, Hardt and Negri’s contribution lies in locating the transformation of capitalism following its industrial form in the biopolitical context, which is largely attained through the infusion of Marxist concepts (i.e. living labour and real subsumption) into profoundly modulated Foucauldian concepts (i.e. biopolitics and biopower). The objective of this paper is to shed light on the key elements of Hardt and Negri’s philosophical and theoretical-political fusion between Marx and Foucault, whereby a promising argument is proposed for the subversive bodies who are eager to act up against the forces of capital, that is, the social powers of biopolitical production can no longer be contained in capitalist biopower. | Download PDF (EN)
The Disruption Dilemma
Jamal Eddine Azzam.
Pages : 507-513
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Stranger Things in Academia
Pages : 514-516
Research in management and organization can only gain by being inspired from arts, culture and humanities in order to rethink practices but also to nourish its own perspectives. Life in organizations is artificially separate from ordinary life: all mundane objects are thus conducive to astonishment, inspiration, and even problematization. The unplugged subsection “voices” gives the opportunity to academics and non-academics to deliver an interpretation of an object from the cultural or artistic world. Interpreted objects mayor may not be directly related to organizational life, and may or may not resonate with the moment, but share some intriguing features. These interpretations suggest a patchwork of variations on the same object.
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Aurélien Acquier, Alf Rehn.
Pages : 517-536
Management and organization research has much to gain in taking inspiration from the arts, culture and humanities, not only in rethinking its practices, but also to nourish its own perspectives. Life in organizations is artificially separate from ordinary life: all mundane objects are conducive to astonishment, inspiration, and even problematization. The Unplugged subsection “Voices” gives academics and non-academics the opportunity to deliver an interpretation of an object from the cultural or artistic world. The objects chosen for interpretation may or may not be directly related to organizational life, may or may not resonate with the moment, but do share some intriguing features. These interpretations form a patchwork of variations on the same object. | Download PDF (EN)