Multi-Shadowing: A Gateway to Organizing? The Case of Hunting with Hounds

  • Nathalie Raulet-Croset IAE Paris – Sorbonne Business School, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, Paris, France
  • Rachel Beaujolin People & Organization, NEOMA BS, Reims, France
  • Thierry Boudes ESCP Business School, Paris, France
Keywords: Hunting with Hounds, Ethnography, Multi-Shadowing, Organizing, Shadowing

Abstract

Organizations can be approached both as entities and as constantly evolving phenomena. The former are associated with the term ‘organization,’ while the latter are specifically associated with ‘organizing.’ In the second meaning, organizations, such as constantly evolving flows, can make observation problematic. Three of these problems deserve special attention. Many events take place at the same time, which poses a challenge for observation. Then there is a question of what to observe, especially for the researcher outside the organization. And finally, the coordination between the actors is not always directly observable. This paper shows how observation by means of multiple- researcher shadowing (Czarniawska, 2007) or ‘multi-shadowing’ makes it possible for the observer to tackle these three difficulties. For the observer, shadowing (McDonald, 2005; Mintzberg, 1970) involves physically following the actors of the organization as part of a weak or even nonparticipating observational approach. ‘Multi-shadowing’ combines simultaneous instances of shadowing different actors in the same unit of time but not of place. We compare shadowing and multi-shadowing with other approaches of solo and multiple-researcher observation. Then, we show the interest and the limits of using multi-shadowing to observe hunting with hounds, which involves activities that, while traditional, borrow a number of characteristics from modern organizations if considered through the prism of organizing.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References


Aguilar Delgado, N. & Barin Cruz, L. (2014). Multi-event ethnography: Doing research in pluralistic settings. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 43–58. doi: 10.1108/JOE-11-2012-0050


Allard-Poesi, F. (2019). Des méthodes qualitatives dans la recherche en management. Voies principales, tournants et nouveaux itinéraires. In J. L. Moriceau & R. Soparnot (Eds.), Recherches qualitatives en Sciences Sociales (pp. 25–44). Editions EMS.


Alter, N. (2003). Movement and dyschrony in organizations. L’Année Sociologique, 2(53), 489–514. doi: 10.3917/anso.032.0489.


Alter, N. (2016). Mouvement, cristallisations et dyschronies dans les entreprises. In F. de Vaujany, A. Hussenot & J. F. Chanlat (Eds.), Théorie des organisations – Nouveaux tournants (pp. 319–337). Economica.


Aumais, N. (2019). Parce qu’une ombre demeure visible. In J. L. Moriceau & R. Soparnot (Eds.), Recherches qualitatives en Sciences Sociales (pp. 275–279). Editions EMS.


Augoyard, J. F. (1979). Pas à Pas, Essai sur le cheminement quotidien en milieu urbain. Editions du Seuil.


Barley, S. R. & Kunda, G. (2004). Gurus, hired guns and warm bodies. Princeton University.


Barry, C. A., Britten, N., Barber, N., Bradley, C.et al. (1999). Using reflexivity to optimize teamwork in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, 9(1), 26–44. doi: 10.1177/104973299129121677


Bayart, D. (1999). La ronde des agents d’accueil en Gare du Nord. In I. Joseph (Ed.), Villes en gares (pp. 193–211). Editions de l’Aube.


Bayart, D., Borzeix, A. & Lacoste, M. (1997). Les traversées de la gare: filmer des activités itinérantes. Champs Visuels, 6, 75–90.


Beaud, S. & Weber, F. (2019). Le raisonnement ethnographique. In S. Paugam (Ed.), L’enquête sociologique (pp. 225–246). PUF.


Beaujolin-Bellet, R., Boudes, T. & Raulet-Croset, N. (2014). La chasse à courre, un spectacle de gestion. Annales des Mines-Gérer et comprendre, 116(2), 43–53. doi: 10.3917/geco.116.0043


Carpiano, R. M. (2009). Come take a walk with me: The “go-along” interview as a novel method for studying the implications of place for health and well-being. Health and Place, 15(1), 263–272. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.05.003


Chauvin, S. & Jounin, N. (2019). L’observation directe. In S. Paugam (Ed.), L’enquête sociologique (pp. 143–166). PUF.


Chia, R. (2002). Essai: Time, duration and simultaneity: Rethinking process and change in organizational analysis. Organization Studies, 23(6), 863–868. doi: 10.1177/0170840602236007


Creese, A., Bhatt, A., Bhojani, N. & Martin, P. (2008). Fieldnotes in team ethnography: Researching complementary schools. Qualitative Research, 8(2), 197–215. doi: 10.1177/1468794107087481


Czarniawska, B. (2007). Shadowing and other techniques for doing fieldwork in modern societies. Liber Copenhagen Business School Press.


Czarniawska, B. (2008). Organizing: How to study it and how to write about it. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 3(1), 4–20. doi: 10.1108/17465640810870364


Czarniawska, B. (2014). Why I think shadowing is the best field technique in management and organization studies. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 9(1), 90–93. doi: 10.1108/QROM-02-2014-1198


Czarniawska, B. (2018). Fieldwork techniques for our times: Shadowing. In M. Ciesielska & D. Jemielniak (Eds.), Qualitative methodologies in organization studies (pp. 53–74). Palgrave Macmillan. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-65442-3_3


Dale, K. & Burrel, G. (2008). The spaces of organization & the organization of space – Power, identity & materiality at work. Palgrave MacMillan.


Dumez, H. (2013). Méthodologie de la recherche qualitative – Les 10 questions clé de la démarche compréhensive. Vuibert.


Dumez, H. (2016). Comprehensive research. A methodological and epistemological introduction to qualitative research. Copenhagen Business School Press.


Erickson, K. & Stull, D. (1998). Doing team ethnography: Warnings and advice. Sage.


Gilliat-Ray, S. (2011). “Being there”: The experience of shadowing a British Muslim Hospital chaplain. Qualitative Research, 11(5), 469–486. doi: 10.1177/1468794111413223


Grosjean, M. & Thibaud, J.P. (2001). L’espace urbain en méthodes. Editions Parenthèses.


Grosjean, S. (2013). Une approche microethnographique et multisituée en organisation: double mouvement de “zoom avant/arrière” sur l’activité d’arpentage. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels, Supplement (HS), 155–177. doi: 10.3917/rips1.hs01.0155


Grosjean, S. & Groleau, C. (2013). L’ethnographie organisationnelle aujourd’hui. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels, 13–23. doi: 10.3917/rips1.hs01.0011


Grosjean, S. & Vidal, M. (2017). Observer les acteurs et les pratiques en situation. Réflexions sur des démarches d’observation multi-situées, équipées et en ligne. Recherches Qualitatives, 22, 1–7.


Hussenot, A. (2016). Inntroduction au tournant processuel. In F. de Vaujany, A. Hussenot & J. F. Chanlat (Eds.), Théorie des organisations – Nouveaux tournants (pp. 261–278). Economica.


Jarzabkowski, P., Bednarek, R. & Cabantous, L. (2015). Conducting global team-based ethnography: Methodological challenges and practical methods. Human Relations, 68(1), 3–33. doi: 10.1177/0018726714535449


Jarzabkowski, P., Bednarek, R. & Lê, J. K. (2014). Producing persuasive findings: Demystifying ethnographic textwork in strategy and organization research. Strategic Organization, 12(4), 274–287. doi: 10.1177/1476127014554575


Jones, P., Bunce, G., Evans, J., Gibbs, H.et al. (2008). Exploring space and place with walking onterviews. Journal of Research Practice, 4(2), Retrieved from http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/150/161


Journé, B. (2005). Etudier le management de l’imprévu: méthode dynamique d’observation in situ. Finance Contrôle Stratégie, 8(4), 63–91.


Journé, B. (2008). Collecter les données par l’observation. In M. L. Gavard-Perret & D. Gotteland (Eds.), Méthodologie de la recherche (pp. 139–176). Pearson.


Kusenbach, M. (2003). Street phenomenology: The go-along as ethnographic research tool. Ethnography, 4(3), 455–485. doi: 10.1177/146613810343007


Lapassade, G. (2002). Observation participante. Hors collection, 1, 375–390. doi: 10.3917/eres.barus.2002.01.0375


Lévy, E. (2001). Saisir l’accessibilité – Les trajets voyageurs à la Gare du Nord. In M. Grosjean & J. P. Thibaud (Eds.). L’espace urbain en méthodes (pp. 47–62). Editions Parenthèses.


Lièvre, P. & Rix-Lièvre, G. (2013). Une ethnographie organisationnelle constructiviste et orientée vers les pratiques situées. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels, Supplement (HS), 45–65. doi: 10.3917/rips1.hs01.0045


Lussault, M. & Stock, M. (2009). “Doing with space”: Towards a pragmatics of space. Social Geography, 5, 11–19. doi: 10.5194/sgd-5-1-2009


Marcus, G. E. (1995). Ethnography in/of the world system: The emergence of multi-sited ethnography. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24(1), 95–117. doi: 10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.000523


Maréchal, G., Linstead, S. & Munro, I. (2013). The territorial organization: History, divergence and possibilities. Culture and Organization, 19(3), 185–208. doi: 10.1080/14759551.2013.812703


Martineau, S. (2005). L’observation en situation: enjeux, possibilités et limites. Recherches Qualitatives, 2, 5–17.


McDonald, S. (2005). Studying actions in context: A qualitative shadowing method for organizational research. Qualitative Research, 5(4), 455–473. doi: 10.1177/1468794105056923


McDonald, S. & Simpson, B. (2014). Shadowing research in organizations: The methodological debates. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 9(1), 3–20. doi: 10.1108/QROM-02-2014-1204


Mintzberg, H. (1970). Structured observation as a method to study managerial work. Journal of Management Studies, 7(1), 87–104. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.1970.tb00484.x


Mintzberg, H. (1973). The nature of managerial work. Harper and Row.


Novoa, A. (2015). Mobile ethnography: Emergence, techniques and its importance to geography. Human Geographies-Journal of Studies & Research in Human Geography, 9(1), 97–107. doi: 10.5719/hgeo.2015.91.7


Pinçon-Charlot, M. & Pinçon, M. (2003). La chasse à courre. Petite bibliothèque Payot.


Quinlan, E. (2008). Conspicuous invisibility: Shadowing as a data collection strategy. Qualitative Inquiry, 14(8), 1480–1499. doi: 10.1177/1077800408318318


Raulet-Croset, N. & Borzeix, A. (2014). Researching spatial practices through commentated walks: “On the move” and “walking with.” Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 27–42. doi: 10.1108/JOE-11-2012-0046


Raulet-Croset, N., Collard, D. & Borzeix, A. (2013). Les apports des parcours commentés. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels, Supplement (HS), 109–128. doi: 10.3917/rips.hs01.0109


Rix-Lièvre, G. & Lièvre, P. (2010). An innovative observatory of polar expedition projects: An investigation of organizing. Project Management Journal, 41(3), 91–98. doi: 10.1002/pmj.20184


Roberts, K. H. (1990). Some characteristics of one type of high reliability organization. Organization Science, 1(2), 160–176. doi: 10.1287/orsc.1.2.160


Rouleau, L. (2013). L’ethnographie organisationnelle d’hier à Demain. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels, Supplément (HS), 27–43. doi: 10.3917/rips1.hs01.0025


Rouleau, L., De Rond, M. & Musca, G. (2014). From the ethnographic turn to new forms of organizational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3(1), 2–9. doi: 10.1108/JOE-02-2014-0006


Schein, E. H. (1999). Kurt Lewin’s change theory in the field and in the classroom: Notes toward a model of managed learning. Reflections: The SoL Journal, 1(1), 59–74. doi: 10.1007/BF02173417


Sclavi, M. (1989). Ad una spanna da terra [Six inches off the ground]. Feltrinelli.


Sclavi, M. (2007). An Italian lady goes to the Bronx. IPOC.


Sheller, M. & Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A, 38(2), 207–226. doi: 10.1068/a37268


Soulé, B. (2007). Observation participante ou participation observante? Usages et justifications de la notion de participation observante en sciences sociales. Recherches Qualitatives, 27(1), 127–140.


Strannegård, L. & Friberg, M. (2001). Already elsewhere. Play, identity and speed in the business world. Raster Förlag.


Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory – Procedures and techniques. Sage Publications.


Thibaud, J. P. (2001). La méthode des parcours commentés. In M. Grosjean & J. P. Thibaud (Eds.), L’espace urbain en méthodes (pp. 79–99). Editions Parenthèse.


Thomas, R. (2010). Marcher en ville. Editions des archives contemporaines.


Tsoukas, H. & Chia, R. (2002). On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization Science, 13(5), 567–582. doi: 10.1287/orsc.13.5.567.7810


Van Hulst, M., Ybema, S. B. & Yanow, D. (2017). Ethnography and organizational processes. In H. Tsoukas & A. Langley (Eds.), The Sage handbook of process organization studies (pp. 223–236). Sage.


Van Maanen, J. (1991). The smile factory: Work at Disneyland. In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Louis, C.C.Lundberg & J. Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 58–76). Sage.


Van Maanen, J. (2006). Ethnography then and now. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 1(1), 13–21. doi: 10.1108/17465640610666615


Van Maanen, J. (2011). Ethnography as work: Some rules of engagement. Journal of Management Studies, 48(1), 218–234. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00980.x


Van Marrewijk, A. & Yanow, D. (2010). Organizational spaces: Rematerializing the workaday world. Edward Elgar Publishing.


Vásquez, C. (2013). Devenir l’ombre de soi-même et de l’autre. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels, Supplement (HS), 69–89. doi: 10.3917/rips1.hs01.0067


Vásquez, C., Brummans, B. H. & Groleau, C. (2012). Notes from the field on organizational shadowing as framing. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 7(2), 144–165. doi: 10.1108/17465641211253075


Walker, C. R., Guest, R. H. & Turner, A. N. (1956). The foreman on the assembly line. Harvard University Press.


Watson, T. J. (2012). Making organisational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 1(1), 15–22. doi: 10.1108/20466741211220615


Weick, K. E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley.


Weinfurtner, T. & Seidl, D. (2019). Towards a spatial perspective: An integrative review of research on organisational space. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 35(2), 101009. doi: 10.1016/j.scaman.2018.02.003


Yanow, D., Ybema, S. & Van Hulst, M. (2012). Practicing organizational ethnography. In G. Simon & C. Cassel (Eds.), The practice of qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 331–350). Sage.


Ybema, S., Yanow, D., Wels, H. & Kamsteeg, F. (2009). Organizational ethnography: Studying the complexities of everyday life. Sage.

Published
2020-09-30
How to Cite
Raulet-Croset, N., Beaujolin, R., & Boudes, T. (2020). Multi-Shadowing: A Gateway to Organizing? The Case of Hunting with Hounds. M@n@gement, 23(3), 45-65. https://doi.org/10.37725/mgmt.v23i3.5426
Section
Original Research Articles