Tell Me Where You Belong, I Might Cite Your Work: Affiliation Origins, Legitimation Efforts, and the Citation of Team-Produced Research in Business and Management Scholarship

  • Mustapha Belkhouja Grenoble Ecole de Management, F-38000 Grenoble, France
  • Hyungseok Yoon Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
  • François Maon IESEG School of Management, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 9221 – LEM – Lille Economie Management, F-59000 Lille, France
Keywords: Citation, Country of origin, Legitimacy, Research collaboration


Drawing from the country-of-origin literature, this study theorizes the effect of academic affiliation origins on the academic impact of knowledge produced by teams of researchers. Our econometric analysis employing more than 65,000 peer-reviewed articles published from 1997 to 2012 in business and management journals reveals that the higher the share of co-authors with peripheral affiliations (i.e. the proportion of authors in a research team not affiliated with a US or UK institution), the lower is the number of citations their articles receive on average. Despite the globalization of knowledge production, the results show that scholars’ geographic location still plays an influential role in knowledge diffusion processes, conditioning gains, or setbacks with respect to the academic impact of their work. We further show that scholars on the periphery of global scholarship can reduce this negative effect by developing ‘targeting’ and ‘framing’ legitimation efforts reflected in the composition of the team they are part of and in the positioning of the knowledge it produces.


Download data is not yet available.


Aldrich, H. & Fiol, C. (1994). Fools rush in? The institutional context of industry creation. Academy of Management Review, 19(4), 645–670. doi: 10.5465/amr.1994.9412190214

Amankwah-Amoah, J. & Debrah, Y. A. (2017). Toward a construct of liability of origin. Industrial and Corporate Change, 26(2), 211–231. doi: 10.1093/icc/dtw021

Baldi, S. (1998). Normative versus social constructivist processes in the allocation of citations: A network-analytic model. American Sociological Review, 63(6), 829–846. doi: 10.2307/2657504

Bartlett, C. & Ghoshal, S. (2000). Going global: Lessons from late movers. Harvard Business Review, 78(3), 132–142.

Baum, J. & Oliver, C. (1992). Institutional embeddedness and the dynamics of organizational populations. American Sociological Review, 57(4), 540–559. doi: 10.2307/2096100

Belkhouja, M. & Yoon, H. D. (2018). How does openness influence the impact of a scholar’s research? An analysis of business scholars’ citations over their careers. Research Policy, 47(10), 2037–2047. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2018.07.012

Ben-David, J. (1984). The scientist’s role in society: A comparative study (2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.

Berger, J., Ridgeway, C., Fisek, M. & Norman, R. (1998). The legitimation and delegitimation of power and prestige orders. American Sociological Review, 63(3), 379–405. doi: 10.2307/2657555

Bitektine, A. (2011). Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: The case of legitimacy, reputation, and status. Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 151–79. doi: 10.5465/amr.2009.0382

Bornmann, L. & Daniel, H. D. (2008). What do citation counts measure? A review of studies on citing behavior. Journal of Documentation, 64(1), 45–80. doi: 10.1108/00220410810844150

Breschi, S. & Lissoni, F. (2009). Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: An anatomy of localized knowledge flows. Journal of Economic Geography, 9(4), 439–468. doi: 10.1093/jeg/lbp008

Cattani, G. & Ferriani, S. (2008). A core/periphery perspective on individual creative performance: Social networks and cinematic achievements in the Hollywood film industry. Organization Science, 19(6), 824–844. doi: 10.1287/orsc.1070.0350

Corbett, A., Cornelissen, J., Delios, A. & Harley, B. (2014). Variety, novelty, and perceptions of scholarship in research on management and organizations: An appeal for ambidextrous scholarship. Journal of Management Studies, 51(1), 3–18. doi: 10.1111/joms.12032

Cronin, B. & Shaw, D. (1999). Citation, funding acknowledgement and author nationality relationships in four information science journals. Journal of Documentation, 55(4), 402–408. doi: 10.1108/EUM0000000007153

De Beule, F., Elia, S. & Piscitello, L. (2014). Entry and access to competencies abroad: Emerging market firms versus advanced market firms. Journal of International Management, 20(2), 137–152. doi: 10.1016/j.intman.2013.05.002

Dubois, S. & Walsh, I. (2017). The globalization of research highlighted through the research networks of management education institutions: The case of French business schools. M@n@gement, 20(5), 435–462. doi: 10.3917/mana.205.0435

Dunning, J. H. (1998). Location and the multinational enterprise: A neglected factor? Journal of International Business Studies, 29(1), 45–66. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490024

Erikson, M. G. & Erlandson, P. (2014). A taxonomy of motives to cite. Social Studies of Science, 44(4), 625–637. doi: 10.1177/0306312714522871

Fiaschi, D., Giuliani, E. & Nieri, F. (2017). Overcoming the liability of origin by doing no-harm: Emerging country firms’ social irresponsibility as they go global. Journal of World Business, 52(4), 546–563. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2016.09.001

Foreman, P. & Whetten, D. (2002). Members’ identification with multiple-identity organizations. Organization Science, 13(6), 618–635. doi: 10.1287/orsc.13.6.618.493

Frenken, K., Hardeman, S. & Hoekman, J. (2009). Spatial scientometrics: Towards a cumulative research program. Journal of Informetrics, 3(3), 222–232. doi: 10.1016/j.joi.2009.03.005

Frenken, K. & Hoekman, J. (2014). Spatial scientometrics and scholarly impact: A review of recent studies, tools, and methods. In Y. Ding, R. Rousseau & D. Wolfram (Eds.), Measuring scholarly impact (pp. 127–146). Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-10377-8_6

Gilbert, G. N. (1977). Referencing as persuasion. Social Studies of Science, 7(1), 113–122. doi: 10.1177/030631277700700112

Golant, B. & Sillince, J. (2007). The constitution of organizational legitimacy: A narrative perspective. Organization Studies, 28(8), 1149–1167. doi: 10.1177/0170840607075671

Harter, S. P. (1992). Psychological relevance and information science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 43(9), 602–615. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4571(199210)43:9<602::AID-ASI3>3.0.CO;2-Q

Heimeriks, G. & Boschma, R. (2013). The path-and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986–2008. Journal of Economic Geography, 14(2), 339–364. doi: 10.1093/jeg/lbs052

Hiatt, S., Sine, W. & Tolbert, P. (2009). From Pabst to Pepsi: The deinstitutionalization of social practices and the creation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(4), 635–667. doi: 10.2189/asqu.2009.54.4.635

Hicks, D. & Hegde, D. (2005). Highly innovative small firms in the markets for technology. Research Policy, 34(5), 703–716. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2005.03.008

Jackson, P. (2010). Web 2.0 knowledge technologies and the enterprise: Smarter, lighter and cheaper. Chandos.

Jones, B., Wuchty, S. & Uzzi, B. (2008). Multi-university research teams: Shifting impact, geography, and stratification in science. Science, 322(5905), 1259–1262. doi: 10.1126/science.1158357

Judge, T., Cable, D., Colbert, A. & Rynes, S. (2007). What causes a management article to be cited: Article, author, or journal? Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 491–506. doi: 10.5465/amj.2007.25525577

Kacperczyk, A. & Younkin, P. (2017). The paradox of breadth: The tension between experience and legitimacy in the transition to entrepreneurship. Administrative Science Quarterly, 62(4), 731–764. doi: 10.1177/0001839217700352

Katz, J. S. & Martin, B. R. (1997). What is research collaboration? Research Policy, 26(1), 1–18. doi: 10.1016/S0048-7333(96)00917-1

Kim, E. H., Morse, A. & Zingales, L. (2009). Are elite universities losing their competitive edge? Journal of Financial Economics, 93(3), 353–381. doi: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2008.09.007

Kim, P., Croidieu, G. & Lippmann, S. (2016). Responding from that vantage point: Field position and discursive strategies of legitimation in the US wireless telegraphy field. Organization Studies, 37(10), 1417–1450. doi: 10.1177/0170840616634132

Kolk, A. & Curran, L. (2017). Contesting a place in the sun: On ideologies in foreign markets and liabilities of origin. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(4), 697–717. doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2897-5

Kostova, T. & Zaheer, S. (1999). Organizational legitimacy under conditions of complexity: The case of the multinational enterprise. Academy of Management Review, 24(1), 64–81. doi: 10.5465/amr.1999.1580441

Leahey, E., Beckman, C. & Stanko, T. (2017). Prominent but less productive: The impact of interdisciplinarity on scientists’ research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 62(1), 105–139. doi: 10.1177/0001839216665364

Lee, Y., Walsh, J. & Wang, J. (2015). Creativity in scientific teams: Unpacking novelty and impact. Research Policy, 44(3), 684–697. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2014.10.007

Leung, K. (2007). The glory and tyranny of citation impact: An East Asian perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 50(3), 510–513. doi: 10.5465/amj.2007.25525592

Lin, M., Lucas Jr, H. C., & Shmueli, G. (2013). Research commentary—too big to fail: large samples and the p-value problem. Information Systems Research, 24(4), 906–917.

Liu, C., Olivola, C. Y. & Kovács, B. (2017). Coauthorship trends in the field of management: Facts and perceptions. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 16(4), 509–530. doi: 10.5465/amle.2016.0080

Lyotard, J.-F. (1984). The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. University of Minnesota Press.

Mangematin, V. & Baden-Fuller, C. (2008). Global contests in the production of business knowledge: Regional centres and individual business schools. Long Range Planning, 41(3), 117–139. doi: 10.1016/j.lrp.2007.11.005

Mangematin, V. & Belkhouja, M. (2015). A note on the evolution of the French management scholarship, 1994–2014. M@n@gement, 18(3), 194–204. doi: 10.3917/mana.183.0194

March, J. (2005). Parochialism in the evolution of a research community: The case of organization studies. Management and Organization Review, 1(1), 5–22. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2004.00002.x

Merton, R. (1968). The Matthew effect in science. Science, 159(3810), 56–63. doi: 10.1126/science.159.3810.56

Mingers, J. & Xu, F. (2010). The drivers of citations in management science journals. European Journal of Operational Research, 205(2), 422–430. doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2009.12.008

Mitchell, R., Nicholas, S. & Boyle, B. (2009). The role of openness to cognitive diversity and group processes in knowledge creation. Small Group Research, 40(5), 535–554. doi: 10.1177/1046496409338302

Moeller, M., Harvey, M., Griffith, D. & Richey, G. (2013). The impact of country-of-origin on the acceptance of foreign subsidiaries in host countries: An examination of the ‘liability-of-foreignness’. International Business Review, 22(1), 89–99. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2012.02.006

Nicolaisen, J. (2007). Citation analysis. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 41(1), 609–641. doi: 10.1002/aris.2007.1440410120

Paris, G., De Leo, G., Menozzi, P. & Gatto, M. (1998). Region-based citation bias in science. Nature, 396(6708), 210. doi: 10.1038/24249

Parker, J., Allesina, S. & Lortie, C. J. (2013). Characterizing a scientific elite (B): Publication and citation patterns of the most highly cited scientists in environmental science and ecology. Scientometrics, 94(2), 469–480. doi: 10.1007/s11192-012-0859-6

Patriotta, G. (2017). Crafting papers for publication: Novelty and convention in academic writing. Journal of Management Studies, 54(5), 747–759. doi: 10.1111/joms.12280

Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Podsakoff, N. & Bachrach, D. (2008). Scholarly influence in the field of management: A bibliometric analysis of the determinants of university and author impact in the management literature in the past quarter century. Journal of Management, 34(4), 641–720. doi: 10.1177/0149206308319533

Ramachandran, J. & Pant, A. (2010). The liabilities of origin: An emerging economy perspective on the costs of doing business abroad. In T. Devinney, T. Pedersen & L. Tihanyi (Eds.), The past, present, and future of international business and management (pp. 231–265). Emerald. doi: 10.1108/S1571-5027(2010)00000230017

Ryazanova, O., McNamara, P. & Aguinis, H. (2017). Research performance as a quality signal in international labor markets: Visibility of business schools worldwide through a global research performance system. Journal of World Business, 52(6), 831–841. doi: 10.1016/j.jwb.2017.09.003

Saunders, J., Wong, V. & Saunders, C. (2011). The research evaluation and globalization of business research. British Journal of Management, 22(3), 401–419. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00755.x

Schott, T. (1988). International influence in science: Beyond center and periphery. Social Science Research, 17(3), 219–238. doi: 10.1016/0049-089X(88)90014-2

Seibert, S. E., Kacmar, K. M., Kraimer, M. L., Downes, P. E., & Noble, D. (2017). The role of research strategies and professional networks in management scholars’ productivity. Journal of Management, 43(4), 1103–1130.

Shadish, W. R., Tolliver, D., Gray, M. & Sen Gupta, S. K. (1995). Author judgments about works they cite: Three studies from psychology journals. Social Studies of Science, 25(3), 477–498. doi: 10.1177/030631295025003003

Sharma, P. (2015). Consumer ethnocentrism: Reconceptualization and cross-cultural validation. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(3), 381–389. doi: 10.1057/jibs.2014.42

Smith, M., Weinberger, C., Bruna, E. & Allesina, S. (2014). The scientific impact of nations: Journal placement and citation performance. PLoS One, 9(10), e109195. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109195

Starbuck, W. H. (2013). Why and where do academics publish? M@n@gement, 16(5), 707–718. doi: 10.3917/mana.165.0707

Suchman, M. (1995). Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 571–610. doi: 10.5465/amr.1995.9508080331

Thomas, H. & Wilson, A. (2011). ‘Physics envy’, cognitive legitimacy or practical relevance: Dilemmas in the evolution of management research in the UK. British Journal of Management, 22(3), 443–456. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00766.x

Üsdiken, B. (2014). Centres and peripheries: Research styles and publication patterns in ‘top’ US journals and their European alternatives, 1960–2010. Journal of Management Studies, 51(5), 764–789. doi: 10.1111/joms.12082

Üsdiken, B. & Wasti, S. A. (2009). Preaching, teaching and researching at the periphery: Academic management literature in Turkey, 1970–1999. Organization Studies, 30(10), 1063–1082. doi: 10.1177/0170840609337952

Veale, R. & Quester, P. (2009). Do consumer expectations match experience? Predicting the influence of price and country of origin on perceptions of product quality. International Business Review, 18(2), 134–144. doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2009.01.004

Verlegh, P. & Steenkamp, J.-B. (1999). A review and meta-analysis of country-of-origin research. Journal of Economic Psychology, 20(5), 521–546. doi: 10.1016/S0167-4870(99)00023-9

Vogel, R., Hattke, F. & Petersen, J. (2017). Journal rankings in management and business studies: What rules do we play by? Research Policy, 46(10), 1707–1722. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2017.07.001

Walsh, S., Yan, J. Mangematin, V. & Mei, M. (2017). Paper bastions: Architecting academic citadels from 1991 to 2009. Management International, 21(4), 126–135. doi: 10.7202/1053582ar

Wooldridge, J. M. (2002). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. MIT Press.

Wuchty, S., Jones, B. F. & Uzzi, B. (2007). The increasing dominance of teams in production of knowledge. Science, 316(5827), 1036–1039. doi: 10.1126/science.1136099

Wuestman, M. L., Hoekman, J. & Frenken, K. (2019). The geography of scientific citations. Research Policy, 48(7), 1771–1780. doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2019.04.004

Yoon, H., Belkhouja, M., Wei, Y. & Lee, S. (2021). Born to be similar? Global isomorphism and the emergence of latecomer business schools. International Business Review, 30(5), 101863, doi: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2021.101863

How to Cite
Belkhouja M., Yoon H., & Maon F. (2022). Tell Me Where You Belong, I Might Cite Your Work: Affiliation Origins, Legitimation Efforts, and the Citation of Team-Produced Research in Business and Management Scholarship. M@n@gement, 25(1), 49–65.
Original Research Articles